- Biases in planning and forecasting hindering quality of decision at project selection stage. Competition between projects creates an incentive to project promoters to emphasize benefits and de- emphasize costs and risks. This consubstantiates what the literature of several cases worldwide reports as “optimist bias”;
- Biases towards developing new project instead of making a more efficient and flexible use from the existing ones, leading to maintain existing infrastructures in poor condition and instead applying funds to new infrastructures;
- Weak regulation, lack of performance pressure, inadequate contractual provisions;
- Biased decision-making whenever projects are assessed in isolation. A systemic view is required, projects must be assessed within portfolios and programs;
- Lack of robust instruments for decision making, such as national infrastructure accounts (balance sheets);
- Lack of reliable instrument for ex-ante assessments of the project costs (i.e. PSC); Non-efficient delivery and delays can surmount up to 30% additional costs, when studies point to possible savings of 20% from efficient delivery.